15 Things You Didn’t Know Could Slow Down Aging
The fountain of youth just isn't a myth: You can actually delay the aging process with these lifestyle choices.
Age is just a number
You may not be able to turn back time, but you can alter the effects of time on your body. It really is possible to slow physical and mental aging. Research has shown that people the same chronological age may have a different "biological age." In one study published in the journal PNAS, nearly 1,000 participants of the same age were examined for cognitive abilities, cardiovascular health, and other markers of fitness at three different ages: 26, 32, and 38. The researchers plotted the slope of each individual's biomarkers and discovered that they didn't all decline at the same rate. Some, in fact, had no slope at all, meaning they weren't aging. At 38 years old, these volunteers had biological ages that ranged anywhere from younger than 30 to nearly 60 years old.
What this means for you is that factors other than genetics can influence the rate you'll age, the study authors said in a Duke University press release. Many of these are within your control, so read on to find out how to slow your pace of aging. (Also, don't fall for 8 aging myths everyone needs to stop believing.)
The best way to slow down aging is to stay in great shape. One study published in Aging Cell found that older people who exercised regularly throughout their lives had the muscle mass, cholesterol levels, and even immune system function of much younger people. Not surprisingly, exercise leads to healthy weight loss—and encourages fat loss (as opposed to muscle). This also helps control blood sugar to prevent diabetes.
"Aerobic exercise—any physical activity that raises your breathing and heartbeat—improves heart health," says Benjamin Epstein, MD, a family medicine specialist with Piedmont Physicians. "Balance and strength training exercises maintain bone strength, decrease arthritis pain, and decrease the risk of falling."
Exercise has mental benefits as well. "Physical activity can decrease depression and anxiety, and can help cognitive function to keep one's mind sharp," Dr. Epstein says. Staying strong, steady on your feet, and limber can also help preserve your ability to live independently longer, he says. Aim for a goal of 30 minutes of aerobic activity five days a week, with 10 minutes of strength and balance training two days a week, he says. (Here are 6 ways exercise makes your brain better.)
Experts agree the best diet for preventing age-related damage and disease starts with whole, natural foods. "A healthy diet includes fewer processed foods without added sugars, fats, and salt," Dr. Epstein says. Avoiding unhealthy sugar and fats can help prevent inflammation, diabetes, and heart disease. (Here's a list of foods anti-aging experts eat every day.)
Dr. Epstein recommends "whole grains, such as whole wheat and brown rice; lean meats and fish, poultry, and eggs; beans, peas, and legumes; and five or more servings of fruits and vegetables a day." Studies reveal that eating whole foods boosts your body's supply of nutrients that keep cells healthy, reduce inflammation, and reduce the risk of major chronic diseases associated with age.
Other research has found that proper nutrients also help keep the brain functioning better longer. "Like so many aspects of our body, what we eat also affects the mind," says Jyotir Jani, MD, primary care physician with Piedmont Healthcare. "Eating food that is natural, home-cooked with love, and limiting red meat help keep the brain sharper."
Eating more plants
Adding more plant foods to her diet is one of Christie Brinkley's age-defying secrets to make 65 look like 34. "Following a plant-based diet—or one that emphasizes foods like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains—can support healthy aging by providing important nutrients to brain and body health," says Abby Sauer, MPH, RD, a registered dietitian with Abbott. "However, plant-based doesn't have to mean plant-exclusive. Other foods like eggs, low or reduced-fat dairy, and seafood can also contribute important nutrients."
The Mediterranean diet, which includes some animal products, is a great example of a plant-based diet, she says. "Research suggests it may lead to lower cholesterol and triglycerides, and a lower risk of heart disease and other health conditions."
Getting enough protein
But eating mostly plants shouldn't mean missing out on protein. Studies show protein is especially important in maintaining muscle mass as we age. "People over the age of 40 may lose up to 8 percent of their muscle mass per decade, and the rate of decline may double after the age of 70," Sauer says. "Yet a recently published study from researchers at Abbott and The Ohio State University found that more than one in three American over 50 aren't getting the recommended amount of protein."
She recommends adults snack on protein sources like nuts, Greek yogurt, or string cheese. Also, "add protein-toppers to meals, such as hummus to a turkey sandwich, diced chicken to pasta, or beans to salad, and aim to eat 25 to 30 grams of protein at every meal," she says. (Learn the 15 best sources of plant-based protein.)
Vitamin D, the "sunshine vitamin," helps keep your bones strong, and it may also help protect against age-related conditions like heart disease and cancer. According to a study of more than 2,000 women, those with higher vitamin D levels also had longer telomeres, the caps on the ends of DNA cells that determine a cell's lifespan. Another study found that older adults with low vitamin D levels had a harder time with everyday tasks like walking up stairs, dressing, and even cutting their toenails.
"Getting 15 to 30 minutes of sun exposure a day should be adequate for vitamin D production," says Dr. Jani. "Of course, that is not through sunbathing but by being outside with normal clothing." You can also get vitamin D in foods, such as fatty fish like salmon, egg yolks, and fortified foods including cereals.
Protecting your skin from the sun
Getting vitamin D outside is a double-edged sword because the sun can cause skin damage, wrinkles, and increase the risk for skin cancer—all of which promotes internal and external aging. And while everyone knows a sunburn is harmful, some people tend to be surprised to find that even getting a tan will damage skin.
According to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), you can guard against premature skin aging by covering up with clothing, wearing a broad-spectrum SPF 30 or higher sunscreen, and seeking shade. In addition, the AAD recommends washing your face twice a day and applying moisturizer to keep your skin young. (Here's how to figure out if your face is aging faster than you are.)
Although research in this area is still in its infancy, it suggests that the environmental toxins we're exposed to may age us faster. Researchers call these toxins "gerontogens." Some examples of gerontogens are arsenic in groundwater and benzene from car exhaust and industrial emissions.
Other research suggests BPA, a chemical found in some plastics, may accelerate the aging process, which is why it may be wise to stick to using BPA-free plastic. Cigarette smoke is clearly a gerontogen given all the research demonstrating how it can age the face and body. "Smoking cessation is the single most important action that an individual can take regardless of age," Dr. Jani says. "Smoking literally causes internal damage to your genetic code, as well as blood vessels and multiple organ systems." (If you need help stopping, check out the 23 best ways to quit smoking.)
As you get older, your kidneys work less efficiently, you may not be as sensitive to thirst signals, and you may take medications that lower your body's fluids. Altogether, this helps explain why the elderly are more prone to dehydration. In a vicious cycle, dehydration derails the normal function of vital systems in your body and even cause dementia-like confusion.
Because of these risks, "it's especially important to stay hydrated as we age," Sauer says. "Water is critical as it makes up about 60 percent of adults' body weight, and our bodies need water for important functions such as regulating body temperature, maintaining healthy skin and joints, digesting food, and removing waste." To keep these systems working better longer, drink even if you aren't thirsty, and consume foods with high water content, such as fruits, vegetables, and soups, she says. (Not drinking enough water is just one of the 22 habits that are making you age faster.)
Maintaining your teeth
It's starting to look like there's a connection between a healthy mouth and healthy aging. Research has shown poor dental health is linked to age-related problems such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes, possibly because bacteria from oral infections may get into the blood and increase inflammation in other parts of the body. In addition, recent studies indicate that gum disease may be linked to a higher risk of dementia and Alzheimer's. Although these connections are still under study, it's worth keeping your chompers healthy and possibly preventing these age-related diseases with good dental habits. (This is exactly how long you need to brush your teeth.)
Keeping your gut healthy
Research has found the collection of "good" bacteria in your intestines, called the gut microbiome, may have implications for how your body ages; . It may even protect you from some age-related diseases such as dementia. In one study published in the journal Cell, the presence of certain gut bacteria actually slowed the rate of aging in worms, which may lead to anti-aging bacterial treatments for humans in the future.
"About 70 percent of your immune system resides in your gut, so maintaining gut health as you age is important to your overall health," Sauer says. "Among other things, your gut provides protection from infections, regulates metabolism, supports your immune system, and promotes a healthy gastrointestinal function." To encourage healthy gut flora as you age, Sauer recommends choosing prebiotic and probiotic foods such as fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, kefir, yogurt, sauerkraut, and kimchi. Exercise, fiber, and fluids can also help keep things moving through your digestive tract. (Still confused? Learn the difference between prebiotics and probiotics.)
Because older people, especially those who are overweight, are prone to acid reflux, you may think of your stomach acid as the enemy. But you need a healthy supply of digestive acids to absorb vital vitamin B12—it helps keep your brain sharp. Atrophic gastritis, which affects 10 to 30 percent of older adults, reduces stomach acid, and therefore absorption of B12. "Deficiency in vitamin B12 can contribute to decreased cognitive function," Dr. Epstein says. In addition, "acid-reducing medicines, and medicines like Metformin for diabetes, can decrease the absorption of nutrients such as vitamin B12."
To prevent this, supplements and fortified foods may be necessary. You can also get B12 from fish, eggs, poultry, and dairy products. "Again, this shows the importance of a diet high in nutrients without being high in calories, not only as we age, but throughout our lives," Dr. Epstein says. (Here are 11 silent signs you're not getting enough B12.)
Chronic stress causes a lot of problems, from wrecking your sleep to increasing your risk of heart disease. In a landmark study published in PNAS, stress was shown to shorten telomeres, the DNA protective caps that help keep cells thriving. People with the highest stress levels had shorter telomeres. It was as if these people were a decade older than people in the lowest stress category, say the study authors.
But the good news is that you can lengthen your telomeres by reducing your stress. In one study, women who practiced meditation had longer telomeres than those who didn't. Meditation may help focus the mind, which is also associated with better cognitive functioning. "Increased stress makes us distracted, frustrated, and unable to focus," Dr. Jani says. "Regular meditation that focuses on breathing or spirituality for 15 minutes per day can have profound effects on improving the concentration ability of the mind." (Here are some mini-meditations to get you started.)
It's called beauty sleep for a reason. When you're snoozing, your body gets busy repairing cell damage. If you cut your sleep short, you can accelerate the visible and internal signs of aging. As if bags and wrinkles under the eyes weren't enough evidence of this, studies have confirmed that poor sleep ages skin faster. In addition, poor or inadequate sleep is linked to age-related diseases like heart problems, high blood pressure, and diabetes, reports the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Sleep deprivation can also undermine your brain as you age—and many older adults suffer from insomnia. To get the recommended seven to nine hours of sleep a night, create a calming bedtime routine, reduce lighting and screen time before bed, and don't eat or drink caffeine close to bedtime. Also, talk to your doctor if you snore a lot, or think your insomnia may be due to medications or other health conditions. (Check out these 15 sleep prescriptions for worriers.)
An active brain
Numerous studies indicate that you may be able to lower the risk—or delay the onset—of age-related mental conditions like dementia and Alzheimer's if you have "cognitive reserve"—resilient brain networks that keep working even if other parts of the brain suffer damage. You can build up this reserve by staying actively engaged in learning new skills and continuing to socialize throughout your life.
"The best ways to keep your brain active and sharp is practicing activity that focuses the mind," Dr. Jani says. "In addition, constantly learning new things or expanding one's knowledge in the profession that they may be in also helps tremendously." For example, research shows learning complex skills like digital photography or quilting enhances memory and cognitive function in older adults. (Following this advice could be just one of the 50 reasons why you'll age better than your parents.)
Having a positive attitude
The old saying is true: You're only as old as you feel. Forgetting their age is one of the 24 stay-young secrets from ageless women. Research backs up the benefits of staying young at heart. Having a positive attitude about aging, maintaining a purpose, and staying socially engaged may help slow the physical and mental aging process. One study revealed that people with a positive attitude lived 7.5 years longer than pessimists, regardless of health. Another found that negative thinking led to steeper physical and cognitive declines.
Yet another study showed those that glass-half-full types were less likely to develop dementia, even if they had a high risk for the disease. "Maintaining a positive attitude and remaining connected socially not only helps us prevent depression, but also helps us better cope with health conditions, and even live longer," Dr. Epstein says. (Here's how to develop a positive attitude in 6 easy steps.)
- PNAS: “Quantification of biological aging in young adults”
- Duke University: “Researchers Learn to Measure Aging Process in Young Adults”
- Aging Cell: “Properties of the vastus lateralis muscle in relation to age and physiological function in master cyclists aged 55–79 years”
- Benjamin Epstein, MD, a family medicine specialist with Piedmont Physicians
- Harvard School of Public Health: “Healthy Eating Plate”
- American Journal of Epidemiology: “Diet Quality Indices and Leukocyte Telomere Length Among Healthy US Adults: Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002”
- NeuroImage: “Nutrient biomarker patterns, cognitive function, and fMRI measures of network efficiency in the aging brain”
- Jyotir Jani, MD, primary care physician with Piedmont Healthcare
- Abby Sauer, MPH, RD, a registered dietitian with Abbott
- Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care: “Mediterranean diet and life expectancy; beyond olive oil, fruits and vegetables”
- Clinical Nutrition: “Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: Recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group”
- The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging: “Low Dietary Protein Intakes and Associated Dietary Patterns and Functional Limitations in an Aging Population: A NHANES Analysis”
- National Institutes of Health: “Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age”
- The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: “Higher serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with longer leukocyte telomere length in women”
- The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism: “Vitamin D Status Is Associated With Functional Limitations and Functional Decline in Older Individuals”
- American Academy of Dermatology: “11 Ways to Reduce Premature Skin Aging”
- American Academy of Dermatology: “Skin Care in Your 40s and 50s”
- Trends in Molecular Medicine: “Defining the Toxicology of Aging”
- Toxicology Letters: “Bisphenol A Exposure Accelerated the Aging Process in the Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans”
- Scientific Reports: “Blood Biochemistry Analysis to Detect Smoking Status and Quantify Accelerated Aging in Smokers”
- Mechanisms of Ageing and Development: “Water-loss dehydration and aging”
- American Heart Association: “Bad tooth-brushing habits tied to higher heart risk”
- Stroke: “Periodontal Disease as a Risk Factor for Ischemic Stroke”
- JADA: “Gum disease can raise your blood sugar level”
- Journal of the American Geriatrics Society: “Association of Chronic Periodontitis on Alzheimer's Disease or Vascular Dementia”
- National Institute on Aging: “Taking Care of Your Teeth and Mouth”
- Scientific Reports: “Analysis of the relationship between the gut microbiome and dementia: a cross-sectional study conducted in Japan”
- Cell: “Microbial Genetic Composition Tunes Host Longevity”
- National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements: “Vitamin B12”
- PNAS: “Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress”
- Brain, Behavior and Immunity: “Loving-Kindness Meditation Practice Associated With Longer Telomeres in Women”
- International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: “A pilot study of yogic meditation for family dementia caregivers with depressive symptoms: Effects on mental health, cognition, and telomerase activity”
- Nature Communications: “Sleep increases chromosome dynamics to enable reduction of accumulating DNA damage in single neurons”
- Clinical and Experimental Dermatology: “Does Poor Sleep Quality Affect Skin Ageing?”
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: “How Does Sleep Affect Your Heart Health?”
- National Sleep Foundation: “Aging and Sleep”
- National Institute on Aging: “A Good Night's Sleep”
- Lancet Neurology: “Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease”
- Psychological Science: “The Impact of Sustained Engagement on Cognitive Function in Older Adults: The Synapse Project”
- JAMA Psychiatry: “Association Between Purpose in Life and Objective Measures of Physical Function in Older Adults”
- National Institute on Aging: “Research Suggests a Positive Correlation between Social Interaction and Health”
- Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: “Longevity Increased by Positive Self-Perceptions of Aging”
- Personality and Individual Differences: “Negative perceptions of aging modify the association between frailty and cognitive function in older adults”
- PLOS One: “Positive age beliefs protect against dementia even among elders with high-risk gene”