Supplements come in so many forms these days: You can get them in pills, tablets, capsules, powders, gummies, and liquids. So what’s the best way to get your nutrients? Well, before deciding to take a supplement, your best bet is to try to get your nutrients from food. Eating a healthy diet can deliver a lot of other beneficial nutrients along with the specific vitamin or mineral you might be interested in. However, if your healthcare provider recommends a vitamin or supplement, you may want to choose one type over another (say gummies, instead of a capsule). Here are some things to keep in mind—other than personal preference—when choosing vitamins and supplements.
Pills might not dissolve
Poorly made pills may not break apart in your digestive tract and can pass right through you, says Tod Cooperman, MD, president of ConsumerLab.com, an independent supplement testing organization in White Plains, New York. “Vitamin pills are supposed to disintegrate within 30 minutes, but if they aren’t made right, they don’t break apart and fully release the ingredients.”
You can test your pills by placing one in warm (not boiling) water and mixing it with a spoon for up to 30 minutes, making sure the spoon taps the vitamin. “If it doesn’t break apart completely, there is a problem,” says Dr. Cooperman.
Even if the supplement breaks up, there are still some nutrients you shouldn’t take as a pill:
Liquid: Fat-soluble vitamins—A, D, E, and K
Your body will absorb these vitamins more readily when you get them alongside some fat-containing foods, Dr. Cooperman says. “These vitamins should be taken as a liquid or powder sprinkled over your breakfast—that will help you remember to take them with food.” (Vitamin D is just one of the supplements that many doctors make sure to take, too.)
Liquid: Apple cider vinegar
Many people take apple cider vinegar to reduce inflammation, improve digestion or stabilize their blood sugar levels, usually in a small shot glass as a liquid, while others prefer a pill. “The problem with apple cider vinegar pills is that the concentration of the acetic acid in the pill may be too high and can be dangerous and irritate the esophagus,” says Dr. Cooperman. ConsumerLab did a study and found the concentration of acetic acid in pills ranged from just 0.4 percent to more than 30 percent. Products containing more than 20 percent acetic acid must carry warning labels due to their potentially corrosive nature.
If you take melatonin to get a good night’s sleep, you’ll likely want it to work fast. “If you take it as a liquid, it kicks in quicker because you don’t have to wait for it to break down,” Dr. Cooperman explains. Here are some other ways to make your vitamins more effective.
Liquid: For higher doses, such as fish oil or fiber
Another reason to avoid the pill form of a vitamin or supplement is when you are taking ultra-high doses, Dr. Cooperman says. Many people take up to six fish-oil pill tablets a day; taking the nutrient as a liquid is wiser and easier than popping handfuls of large pills. (Bonus: many fish oil liquids are now formulated to be free of that seafood flavor and can seamlessly be added to smoothies and salads). Fiber falls into this category, says Dr. Cooperman. “It’s better to mix a powder into liquids than to take several large pills daily.”
Liquid vitamins aren’t always the best solution, though. Some vitamins such as vitamin C and folic acid may be less stable in liquid form, and that could mean you’re getting less of the active ingredient, Dr. Cooperman says. Other liquids may require refrigeration, which would make them difficult to travel with. Check out the 12 vitamin mistakes you don’t realize you’re making.